The Geneva Conference ( April 26-July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries
that agreed to restore peace in Indochina and Korea.
During the First Indochina War, the French had sought to re-establish
colonial rule in Indochina, but despite America aid, they were
defeated in 1954 by forces under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh in the Viet Minh, notably in the Battle
of Dien Bien Phu.
On 21 July, the Conference produced a declaration which supported the territorial integrity and sovereignty
of the indochina which gained independence, the cessation of hostilities and
foreign involvement (or troops) in internal affairs. Vietnam was partitioned into northern and southern
zones pending unification on the basis of internationally supervised free elections
to be held in June 1955.
The agreement was between Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam, France, Laos, the People's Republic of China, the State of Viet-Nam, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. However, only
France and Ho Chi Minh's DRV signed the document. The former wanted to re-establish her colonial influence while the latter
was buying time to reinforce its position in the North .
The partition forced about two million North Vietnamese to migrate to the south as
the communist north began impose severe rules to implement radical land reforms. The partition also forced many South Vietnamese
to migrate north as the capitalist south began to persecute and kill opponents of the regime.
Backed by the United States, the southern government headed
by Ngo Dinh Diem refused to open consultation with the North Vietnamese concerning
general elections, which were never honored.
The result was the Second Indochina War which is also known as the Vietnam War.